Formation of Turkey-European Union Relations and Analysis of Historical Conjecture

Formation of Turkey-European Union Relations and Analysis of Historical Conjecture

  • Araştırma Yazıları
  • 12 Nisan 2021 Pazartesi
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  • Okunma : 1553

Relations between the European Union and Turkey have been an important and challenging process. In the relationship that began with the signing of the Ankara Treaty and extends to the present day, neither Turkey was able to give up its decision on full membership, nor Europe was able to completely reject Turkey. In the relations dating back to the past, the Ottoman period, the Atatürk period, the post-Second World War periods were important factors at the beginning of these relations as the processes before the European Economic Community. These relations continued during the European Economic Community (EEC) period. In addition, as official documents, the Ankara Agreement and the Additional Protocol play a critical role in relations between Europe and Turkey.


ABSTRACT

 

Relations between the European Union and Turkey have been an important and challenging process. In the relationship that began with the signing of the Ankara Treaty and extends to the present day, neither Turkey was able to give up its decision on full membership, nor Europe was able to completely reject Turkey. In the relations dating back to the past, the Ottoman period, the Atatürk period, the post-Second World War periods were important factors at the beginning of these relations as the processes before the European Economic Community. These relations continued during the European Economic Community (EEC) period. In addition, as official documents, the Ankara Agreement and the Additional Protocol play a critical role in relations between Europe and Turkey.

Key Words: European Economic Community (EEC), European Union (EU), Additional Protocol, Ankara Agreement

 

ÖZET

 Avrupa Birliği ile Türkiye arasındaki ilişkiler önemli ve zorlu bir süreç olmuştur. Ankara Antlaşması'nın imzalanmasıyla başlayan ve günümüze uzanan ilişkide ne Türkiye tam üyelik kararından vazgeçebilmiştir, ne Avrupa Türkiye'yi tamamen reddedebilmiştir. Geçmişe dayanan ilişkilerde, Osmanlı dönemi, Atatürk dönemi, İkinci Dünya Savaşı sonrası dönem, Avrupa Ekonomik Topluluğu öncesi süreçler olarak bu ilişkilerin başlangıcında önemli faktörlerdi. Bu ilişkiler Avrupa Ekonomik Topluluğu (AET) döneminde devam etti. Ayrıca, Resmi belgeler olarak Ankara Anlaşması ve Ek Protokol, Avrupa ile Türkiye arasındaki ilişkilerde kritik bir rol oynamaktadır.

Anahtar Kelimeler: Avrupa Ekonomik Topluluğu (AET), Avrupa Birliği (AB), Ek Protokol, Ankara Antlaşması

 

Introduction

Many events and actions from the past to the present have played a key role in bringing countries together and being in unity. In this context, the devastating and negative impact of the Second World War, especially on the European continent and countries on this continent, led to the cooperation of countries on this continent after the war and to come together and form a union. Also, in the creation of this union, which is known as the European Union today, countries such as West Germany, France, and Italy, which were deeply affected by the effects of war on the European continent, were first pioneered. As a result of this situation, it is possible to see the existence of the European Union, which still exists today and contains 27 countries that are in the Union.  On the other hand, relations between Turkey and the European Union are also seen as a process and phenomenon that has long, difficult, and varied dimensions when examined historically. In this context, although bilateral relations, which began with the Ankara Agreement, which plays a key role as the beginning of relations between Turkey and the European Union, have been positively and negatively affected over time, it is possible to see that Turkey's desire and decision to join the European Union has not changed in the process extending from this agreement to the present day. Similarly, if examined by the European Union, it is possible to see that Turkey, which wants to be included in the Union and has experienced problems and negativity in relations from time to time, does not reject the membership process, and Turkey's membership process continues in this process. At this point, it is seen that the chain of relations and dialogue between the European Union and Turkey has been fluctuating periodically, and discussions on Turkey's accession to the European Union have been continuing for a long time. On the other hand, this research article will discuss Turkey's relations with the European Union, its interaction, and the effective and important elements in the process of continuing these relations. At this point, this research paper will examine the importance of important elements in the interaction of Turkey and the European Union in determining the communication and relationship between Turkey and the European Union, as well as the development and continuity of these bilateral relations in the historical process.

 

1.      Turkey and European Relations Before the European Economic Community

1.1.Ottoman Period

Turks’ view of Europe in history, the rise of the Ottoman Empire, shows differences in periods of decline and collapse. For example, the conquest of Istanbul in 1453 was an extremely important turning point in the relations between Turks and Europeans. According to Manisalı: “During the rise of the Ottoman Empire, the Turks had superiority over Europe” (Manisalı, 2002: 13).  On the other hand, Bozkurt stated that: “It is known that the first encounter of Turks with Europeans was on the fronts and the image of the Turks recognized by Europeans was largely shaped in this atmosphere” (Bozkurt, 2001: 257). In the 19th century, the ruling classes had to establish a political, social, and economic structure in order to resist the pressures from the West. For this reason, there are opinions that the Westernization movement started in the 19th century. Also, the Tanzimat period can be interpreted as a kind of Europeanization process. European states expanded their financial, political, and military sovereignty over the Ottoman Empire and ensured that the non-Muslim Ottomans were placed under their own protection. They have also pressed for the adoption of European law and regime. Studies have been conducted to analyze the transformation of the Ottoman Empire by associating the Tanzimat period with the Industrial Revolution in the West and the French Revolution. It led the Ottomans to restructure in politics with the influence of 19th-century nationalism, imposed a liberal understanding in the economic field, and in the field of religion, with the effect of the principle of secularism, it influenced the perception of Westernization by some Ottoman intellectuals in a secular axis. In this period, it can be seen that the society entered into a radical change process with its political, cultural, and economic dimensions. The Tanzimat Edict aimed to equalize all Ottoman citizens in terms of rights and duties. The Ottoman Empire established embassies in European Capitals in the 18th century. According to Hale: “In addition to representing their governments, the officials working at these embassies were tasked with following the technical and administrative developments of the west to further the Tanzimat reforms” (Hale, 2003: 7). During the Tanzimat Period, Ottoman intellectuals’ contact with the West increased and a Western environment was formed. Intellectuals have also developed political and cultural-oriented relations in the countries they have gone to. The 1856 Reform Edict includes the granting of certain rights to non-Muslims within the Ottoman subjects. The privileges that were granted in the time of the Fatih were reinstated and equal rights with Muslims were granted in matters such as social rights, tax liabilities, military service, education, and civil service. As a result of the reform edict, while the Ottoman Christians became stronger and privileged, the Turkish people gradually became poor. In the 1890s, European states began to develop their economic relations with the Ottoman Empire. Especially with the increase of trade between Germany and the Ottoman Empire, Germany took part in the renovation efforts of the Ottoman army. Yet as a result of the Balkan Wars, the Ottoman Empire lost its lands in the West.

2.      Relations with Europe in the Republic Period

2.1.Atatürk Period (1920-1938)

One of the main political problems in the period when the Turkish State was established is the occupation and provocation that occurred after the Mondros Armistice Agreement and the increase in the separatist activities of the organizations that were previously established by non-Muslim minorities in secret. At the same time, in Anatolia, where a multi-faceted war prevailed, rebellions broke out one after another under the guidance of the sultan, caliph, and England. According to Sezal: “Two types of problem areas, one economic and the other social and cultural, are mentioned in the structural changes that occur” (Sezal, 1984:196). In addition to problems such as non-industrialization, urban economic activities based on low production, lack of qualified workforce, lack of local entrepreneurial and administrative skills, the need for a new socio-political and cultural structure was the basis of the need for Westernization. In this period, it can be observed that the financial and economic environment is bad. The industry is dispersed, agriculture is inadequate, and trade is in the hands of foreigners. In addition, trade with industry could not be protected due to capitulation and trade agreements. Businesses such as banking, insurance, mining, water, electricity, and gas were in the hands of foreigners. Efficiency and production were very low. Per capita income was very low. Although the majority of the people lived in villages, agriculture was very backward. Even though it was an agricultural country, technology could not be used. In such an environment of social turmoil and economic depression, the importance of Atatürk’s Westernization project and the reforms implemented in this direction comes to the fore. Unlike many reformers in this period, Atatürk believed that fundamental changes were necessary for the structure of society and the state, rather than just modernization. Oran states that Westernization was applied in four main areas during Atatürk’s period; Secularism in the socio-political field, Statism, and Populism in the socio-economic field, Revolutions in the socio-cultural field have been the application tools of westernization within the possibilities brought by the principle of republicanism. For example, secularism made regulations such as alphabet reform, the Hat and Dress Law, and the adoption of the Turkish Civil Code. This situation was reacted by some segments of the society that were inherited from the Ottoman Empire and had a more traditional structure, especially from the organizations around clergy and mosques. Like all revolutions of Atatürk, the steps he took in the field of the economy have aimed to fundamentally change and modernize Turkish society. Öztürk and Yıldırmaz state that: “In 16 years, Atatürk kept the speed of development of the country at the best level in the history of the Republic” (Öztürk and Yıldırmaz, 2009: 163). On the other hand, the cultural policy of the Ataturk period is a cultural policy based on independence and self-confidence, aiming to raise the society as a whole to the level of contemporary civilization. Looking at the Turkish foreign policy of the Republican period, it is observed that relations with Europe have improved, especially with the steps taken towards becoming a regional power, the strategic importance of the Republic of Turkey has begun to feel to the outside world again. Atatürk Period foreign policy: who are principled, rational, observing national interests, peaceful, evaluating the conditions of international climate and mutual relations; focused on a solution based on the compromise approach it proposes and intense diplomacy carried out in accordance with mutual interests; It can be said to be a peaceful and active policy. Diplomacy with European states has generally been successful and contributed to the maintenance of peace. Lausanne, which riveted the victory of the war of independence and the existence of the new Turkish state, and many international treaties were extremely intense in terms of foreign policy. In the approaching years of World War II, T.C. through his peaceful and diplomatic initiatives managed to gather sympathy throughout Europe and signed the treaty with France, the USSR, Japan, Romania, Bulgaria, Greece, and Yugoslavia. With the treaty signed in Montreux, Turkey declared its full sovereignty in the Straits. The main problems occupying the foreign policy of the government during the Republic period are Istanbul of the Turkish Straits and the Dardanelles not given to Turkey's full control, failure to determine the border between Iraq and Mosul and surrounding Greece has been a change in the Turkish and Greek Cypriot population. Turkey has a peaceful approach to foreign policy during this period has been.

2.2.After World War II  (1938-1957)

In order to understand Turkey’s political relations in the historical period, it is necessary to first look at the general dynamics of the period. Turkey did not actually enter the Second World War despite Allied pressure, as it was afraid of the Soviet threat after Germany’s final defeat. As with all of Europe, the war affected Turkey with its political, economic, and cultural dimensions and was an effective factor in shaping the domestic politics of the period. During the Second World War, Turkey managed to stay away from the war, providing political, military, and economic power, as well as a diplomatic success. According to Sander: “Considering the international system, colonial movements took a different dimension and began to lose power due to the increase of nationalist movements in Europe during this period” (Sander, 2009: 333). The USA and Soviet Russia, which were called superpowers after the war, dominated world politics and entered the cold war period that was formed between these power centers. Lewis stated that: “Turkey severed diplomatic ties with Germany in 1944 and declared war on Germany on February 23, 1945, two months before the end of the war, thus being invited to the UN Conference in San Francisco” (Lewis, 2009: 396). Turkey has tried to minimize the negative effects of the war with the meticulous decisions of those who direct foreign policy, including President Ismet Inönü, and has also tried to protect itself against attacks that may come from Italy or Germany. During the war, Turkey remained between two superpowers, such as the United States and the USSR, especially because of its geographical location, and these forces were forced to approach the US side, and after the war, it wanted to take its place in Western Europe in the process of the rapid international organization. In addition, After the war, a multipolar European balance system established for Western European countries has now been switched to a Western European power union with a (military) solidarity pact established under the leadership of the United States. On the other hand, a change is observed in the cultural policy of the period. With the influence of Hasan Ali Yücel, who was the education representative, a management understanding dominated by cultural humanism in the Western-style was adopted, and the translation of cultural, art, and literary works of the country’s leading languages from Latin and Greek to Turkish was ensured. According to Torun: “As a concrete indicator of this policy followed in culture, the chairs of Western languages established in the Faculty of Language, History, and Geography established in 1936 can be shown” (Torun, 2002: 119). In addition, in this period, the practices of secularism were reviewed, the practice of community centers and village institutes in the field of education started, and the constitution was translated into Turkish in parallel with the studies in the field of language. Considering the cultural policies of this period, it is noteworthy that the biggest change was in the issues of religion and secularism. As a matter of fact, during the governments of the DP in 1950, 1954, and 1957, the ban on Arabic adhan was lifted, religious education was expanded in primary and secondary schools, and Imam Hatip schools were opened. On the other hand, Turkey’s relations with Europe, the Turkish-Greek relations in the 1950s were also marked.

3.      Political Relations Between Turkey and Europe In the European Economic Community (EEC) Period

With the end of the Second World War, European countries, in their current situation, have entered under the guidance of the USA or the USSR in order to ensure their own security and stability. According to Kissinger: “Western Europe is a member of NATO and Eastern Europe is a member of the Warsaw pact, linking their security and stability to the balance of power established somewhere between the two blocs” (Kissinger, 2000: 393-414). The first attempt to establish the European Coal and Steel Community (ECSC), which forms the structure known today as the European Union and is the first of three Communities, came from the French Foreign Minister Robert Schumann. Efforts to establish a political and economic union in Europe accelerated in 1955 with the “Benelux Memorandum” and the establishment of an intergovernmental committee on which the basic principles on which EEC and EURATOM will be based. The basic idea in the report prepared was that countries alone could not carry out the technical revolution required by the atomic age, and for this, Europe had to integrate on a common economic basis. Dinan stated that: “The purpose of EURATOM has been determined to improve the use of atomic energy for peaceful purposes. When EURATOM institutions were merged with ECSC and EEC in 1967, they visibly moved away from their identity” (Dinan, 2005: 100).  Thus, by the 1970s, it can be said that the bipolar world had weakened and that Europe, which provided power and stability with the EEC, had also become a more active actor in world politics. During the Cold War, it is necessary to identify important political developments in order to understand the dynamics of Defense and economic development in Europe and the relations established within this framework with Turkey.

Cyclical assessments are of great importance in analyzing the relations of the EEC period. The factors involved in the establishment of political relations established by the EEC structure, which are seen as a new era in Turkey’s relations with Europe, are diverse. Perhaps the most important of these factors is based on economic reasons. When the ‘60s Turkey seems to be lagging behind economically EEC countries. It is seen that Turkey has implemented an economic regime based on interventionism and protectionism, which is closed to the outside, especially incompatible with EEC membership. Germany, Britain, France, and Italy became the leading countries in which Turkey developed its economic relations. Looking back at the '80s in Turkey’s political history, there have also been new orientations in foreign policy. Economically, in the 80s after the swing-out of Turkey, exports have brought to the fore, it has required that new markets.

4.      Turkey-European Union Relations and Ankara Agreement

It is possible to see that one of the elements that play a key role in Turkey’s interaction with the European Union is the Ankara Agreement. In this context, the Ankara agreement is very important in terms of the importance it has and the start of the process of Turkey’s entry into the European Union. When Turkey is analyzed in this process, it is possible to see that, after the devastating effects of the Second World War, Turkey preferred the Western bloc as a side and Turkey’s membership in NATO was accepted. At this point, After Turkey’s admission to NATO, Turkey also applied to the European Economic Community and began its interaction with the European Union, which continues its relations despite various fluctuations that date back to the present day. In this context, it is seen that the importance of the Ankara agreement is great as an effective element at the beginning of these bilateral communications and dialogues. Relations between Turkey and the European Union, which have a fairly long history, refer to a bumpy but important process for both sides and despite all the tensions, the official document that started the Union of these, who have not given up on each other until today, is the Ankara Agreement. Moreover, leading up to the Ankara Agreement in this process, Turkey has entered into development efforts in many areas, and this desire and wants for the development of Turkey has shown itself, especially in the political and economic arena. In this context, according to Uysal, “Turkey has made various efforts to achieve the development plans it aims and wants, and on July 31, 1959, it applied for partnership with the EEC with the idea that this development process it plans will accelerate” (Uysal,2001:142). Furthermore, it is possible to say that Turkey has entered a difficult and long process by applying to the European Economic Community within the scope of its various goals. At this point, however, as a result of the interview and application process that went through these difficult and various stages, the Ankara Agreement was signed. At this point, the dialogues between the European Economic Community and Turkey have resulted following a difficult process and establishing partnership between Turkey and the EEC on 12 September 1963 Ankara Agreement signed on 12 September 1963 began to be implemented. At this point, it is possible to say that the foundations of the legal and relations of Turkey and the European Union are formed by the Ankara Agreement signed between Turkey and the European Economic Community and which has begun to be implemented. In this context, according to Günuğur, “The Ankara Agreement is a comprehensive framework agreement that provides for the free movement of persons, goods, services, and capital between the parties, as well as Turkey's full membership in the EU” (Günuğur,1988:54). Furthermore, it aims to facilitate Turkey's accession to the community in the future with the support that the EEC will bring to the effort to improve the level of life of the Turkish people, taking into account the difference between the Turkish economy and the community economy, and economic assistance, by establishing increasingly tight ties between the two sides with the signing of the Ankara Agreement. On the other hand, considering the Ankara Agreement, which is of key importance in the formation of relations between Turkey and the European Union, it is possible to separate the partnership of Turkey and the European Economic Community as various periods with the Ankara Agreement. These periods are seen as very important in terms of demonstrating the processes of relations and partnership between Turkey and the European Economic Community until it becomes full membership. In this context, the first period of Turkey and the European Economic Community is called the preparatory period. At this point, when the preparatory period is examined, according to Fırıncı, “During this period between December 1, 1964, and December 31, 1972, the Community pledged to strengthen the Turkish economy with unilateral obligations to be undertaken and to prepare for the transition to the Customs Union” (Fırıncı,2013:104). On the other hand, another period in relations between Turkey and the European Economic Community is a transitional period. At this point, this period is especially seen as an important period for the Turkish economy. In this context, according to Ceyhan, “During the transition period, the European Economic Community immediately lifted customs duties and restrictions on Turkish industrial products, excluding cotton yarn, cotton weaving, and refined petroleum products, and provided import facilities for some agricultural products” (Ceyhan,1991: 487). Furthermore, in accordance with the Ankara Agreement, the process after the transition period in partnership with Turkey and the European Economic Community is called the final period. At this point, Partnership relations between the EEC and Turkey in recent years have been emphasized in Article 5 of the Ankara Agreement. According to this, "The last period is based on the customs union and requires the strengthening of coordination between the economic policies of the sides. On the other hand, when the Ankara Agreement is examined in general, the Ankara Agreement is considered as an agreement in which the legal and political foundations for the beginning of interaction and communication between Turkey and the European Union are laid. In this context, in this process, it is possible to say that Turkey's desire to join the European Economic Community in the first place plays a key role in its relations with the European Union in the future process. At this point, it is possible to say that one of the important elements in the development of relations between Turkey and the European Union and its historical process is the Ankara Agreement.

5.      Additional Protocol

The Ankara Agreement, signed between Turkey and the European Economic Community, brought with it various processes. During the preparation process at the time of the signing of the Ankara Agreement, Turkey had no responsibility and obligations to the European Economic Community. However, in the transition period after the preparatory period, it is possible to say that both the European Economic Community and Turkey have many obligations. At this point according to Karluk, “The Additional Protocol was adopted in November 1970 and has been implemented since 1973.Thus, the preparatory period included in the Ankara Treaty, which is a framework agreement, ended in 1970” (Karluk,2007: 870). On the other hand, when the additional protocol is examined, the additional Protocol is seen as a key element between Turkey and the European Economic Community. At the same time, it is possible to say that it is a continuation of the Ankara Agreement with the features it has and contains in its content. At this point, according to Fırıncı, “The economic, social and political nature of the Additional Protocol parallels the Ankara Treaty and forms an annex to the Ankara Treaty” (Fırıncı, 2013:.108). On the other hand, when the additional protocol is examined, it is seen that there are many different points that the additional protocol has. At this point, according to Uysal, “Among the important articles of the Additional Protocol, the section entitled "Free Movement of goods" includes sections such as the establishment of a customs union for industrial products, the adoption of a common customs tariff by Turkey and the principles for the removal of quantity restrictions” (Uysal, 2001:143). Furthermore, although the additional protocol qualifies as a continuation of the Ankara Agreement, it is very important because it has various rules and obligations. In this context, The added Protocol (1970) included the calendar and rules on the abolition of customs duties and all kinds of financial obligations and quantity restrictions (quotas) imposed on the trade of industrial goods between Turkey and the EEC and Turkey’s compliance with the EEC’s common customs tariff. On the other hand, the process after the initiation of the obligations of the Ankara Agreement and the Additional Protocol, which are critical in the formation of relations between Turkey and the European Union, is seen as very important in the formation of relations between Turkey and the European Union. In this context, by the 1980s, the Turkish government had begun efforts to revive its relations with the European Community and began to implement the Ankara Agreement and the requirements of the Additional Protocol.  At this point, Turgut Özal, the Turkish government, and president of the period, implemented different strategies to improve Turkey-EC relations and put them on a more positive path. Some of these are that Turkey begins to fulfill its customs obligations under the Ankara Agreement and the added Protocol unilaterally, expediting them, and reviving political relations under the Ankara Agreement. In addition, in general, when the Ankara Agreement and the Additional Protocol, which is its continuation, are examined, according to Karluk, “In fact, the Ankara Agreement, the joint membership agreement, mentioned full membership as the final goal, but it was a decision that would be taken not automatically, but depending on the consent and evaluation of both parties at the time” (Karluk, 2007: 870). Moreover, it is possible to say that the Ankara Agreement and the added protocol are one of the important factors in Turkey’s application for membership in the European Union and in relations with Turkey and the European Union.

Conclusion

Eventually, relations between Turkey and the European Union are quite rooted and have been constantly interacting with each other in both elements since ancient times. At this point, although relations between the European Union and Turkey are very significant, it is seen as a very difficult process due to the negativity experienced in the process. In addition, the Ankara Agreement, which is the beginning of relations between Turkey and the European Union, and the important elements in the process of its continuation have a very critical role in terms of demonstrating the continuity of these bilateral relations, which extend from the past to the present. In this context, it is possible to see that the interaction and relations between Turkey and the European Union have begun, especially with the implementation of the Ankara Agreement and the obligations of the Additional Protocol, and today Turkey’s relations with the European Union and the membership process continue. On the other hand, these elements, which have occurred in the past and determine Turkey’s relations with the European Union, also play a very key role in terms of showing how eager and striving Turkey has been to become a member of the European Union since the past. In general, this research paper focused on the historical analysis of relations between Turkey and the European Union, and this partially addressed the elements that were instrumental in the formation of positive and negative relations.

Sümer Esin Şenyurt – Murat Özay Taşkın

Avrupa Çalışmaları Stajyerleri

 

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